The two major interventions for prostate cancer treatment are radiation and surgery (radical prostatectomy). Radiation very rarely results in leakage of urine, but may irritate the bladder and cause the urgent desire to urinate or the need to urinate with increased frequency. Surgery to remove the prostate most certainly can put one at risk of developing stress urinary incontinence. But what do we mean by stress? It does not mean incontinence brought on by a stressful incident. By stress we mean that any rise in the pressure inside the abdomen (such as during coughing, sneezing, defecating, positional shifts or exercise) may press down on the bladder and cause urine to leak. In rare instances, it may continuously leak on its own........
In many of our research blogs we have highlighted the psychological and beneficial effects of exercise. It has been shown that lack of strength and/or muscle power has been associated with poor survival1. During this Men’s Health Week2 (14-20 June 2021) the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australian (PCFA) is encouraging everyone to do 45 sit-ups a day for one week (and hopefully long-term) to stay fit but to also start a conversation. But why 45? That’s because, “45 men are diagnosed each day, and over 3000 will die this year,” according to CEO of the PCFA, Professor Jeff Dunn (AO). He goes on to add that this is “currently the most prevalent cancer in Australia and by 2040, an estimated 372,000 men will be living with or beyond prostate cancer, a 60 per cent increase from around 230,000 today.”
At the COVID-19 pandemic’s peak or during one of it’s waves when there are many active cases in the community, the management of viral cases is given precedence over less acute cancer cases. In such circumstances a triage system is established in order to prioritise cancers according to stage and type....
A recent study by Paschalis et al from the Institute of Cancer Research at the Royal Marsden Hospital London examined the sampled tissue of 74 participants in an effort to search for a new potential therapeutic target site for metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer.
The last stop for erectile dysfunction treatment By Kalli Spencer
At this juncture in one’s prostate cancer journey, spirits may be down, frustration levels high and all hope for a more fulfilling sex life might seem lost. As per last week’s blog various erectile dysfunction medications, mechanical devices and self-injections may have been attempted and either deemed ineffective or failed.
There is one final option in the third tier of the treatment strategy and that is the insertion of a penile prosthetic or inflatable balloon placed within the penis. This procedure eliminates the need for any further medication and an erection depends on a device to occur.
For more information on sexual issues following prostate cancer treatment click the following link to access the PCFA resource - "Understanding Sexual Issues"
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the next level of medical treatment available. Assuming all medication based options (and even mechanical ones, such as vacuum erection devices) have failed: what’s next?
New imaging technology, using prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET combined with computerised tomography (PET/CT), has proven highly useful for staging prostate cancer in both the newly diagnosed and recurrent setting (disease that has returned after primary treatment). Benefits include greater utility in making treatment decisions and lower radiation doses.
There is limited research examining the impact of exercise on psychological distress in men with prostate cancer. Galvão et al1, from the Exercise Medicine Research Institute at the Edith Cowan University in Perth, focused on this particular issue, with specific reference to men with prostate cancer undergoing ADT.
We would like to introduce Kalli Spencer to everyone! Kalli will be writing weekly updates on the latest in prostate cancer research and treatments, so you’ll be hearing from him regularly.
Kalli is an internationally renowned Urological Surgeon, specialising in oncology and robotic surgery. He trained and worked in South Africa, before relocating to Australia where he has worked at Macquarie University Hospital and Westmead Hospital. His passion for what he does extends beyond the operating room, through public health advocacy, education and community awareness of men’s health, cancer and sexuality.
Kalli has been involved with the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia for many years, advocating for improved cancer care and facilitating community prostate cancer support groups. Kalli has joined the team and is now helping to deliver evidence-based research blogs for PCFA on a regular basis. PCFA's Research Blog is regularly updated with articles, written in simple language, about recent and topical research in prostate cancer.
We look forward to bringing you more regular news updates soon!
Australia has been leading the world in its practice of performing prostate biopsy via the skin (Transperineal Biopsy) instead of via the rectum (Transrectal). Movember’s Prostate Cancer Outcomes Registry shows that in Victoria, the majority of prostate biopsies are now performed via the skin. In 2013, it was only 5%.
Please click through to read more from Dr Jeremy Grummet on TREXIT.
Research shows that how we think about our cancer and exercise may influence how much we exercise.
Research by Dr Siân Cole and the Psycho-oncology Research Team at the Olivia Newton-John Cancer Wellness and Research Centre – Dr Gemma Skaczkowski and Prof Carlene Wilson - found that beliefs around exercise and cancer influence levels of exercise engagement in adults undergoing treatment for cancer.
Receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer is a major life stress for most men and their loved ones. Suddenly, the things that matter most seem threatened and it is very normal to experience a wide range of feelings and emotions.
Sometimes you may feel more distressed than at other times. Your feelings might be more intense while waiting for test results, making treatment decisions or just before commencing treatment. Side effects from treatment may also cause stress and upset. After treatment, you may worry about the cancer returning.
Today, there are over 220,000 men living after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For most men the long-term outlook is very good - relative to the general population and considering other causes of death, 95% of men with prostate cancer will survive at least five years after diagnosis and 91% of men with prostate cancer will survive 10 years or more.
To help improve the lives of men living with prostate cancer, there is a need for more evidence-based strategies to help them manage the challenges of living with the disease. There is growing evidence that mindfulness is one strategy that can be used to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression associated with prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Australian men, with about 17,000 men newly diagnosed each year. For most men the long-term outlook is very good - relative to the general population and considering other causes of death, 95% of men with prostate cancer will survive at least five years after diagnosis and 91% of men with prostate cancer will survive 10 years or more. Today there are around 220,000 Australian men alive after a diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Of concern to our mission, for men who develop advanced prostate cancer, the outlook is not as good. Prostate cancer kills more than 3,000 men in Australia every year, representing about 12% of all male deaths from cancer. So, what is advanced prostate cancer, how is it detected and how is it treated?
If you’ve been diagnosed with prostate cancer, your overall health and fitness can impact your treatment options, as well as influencing how you physically recover from surgery and other types of therapy. Maintaining a healthy weight is key, a point backed up by new Australian research.
Medicare data suggests that up to 21% of Australian men aged 45–74 choose to have a Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Test each year, and about 19% of men aged over 74 also undergo testing.
While PSA testing helps to identify men with an increased risk of undiagnosed prostate cancer, and can help to diagnose prostate cancers earlier, it can also produce false positive results, and in some men picks up cancers that are so slow growing that they do not affect a man’s life expectancy, a finding known as over-diagnosis. False positives and over-diagnosis can cause harm, which means men and their doctors need to carefully consider the pros and cons of testing, based on each man’s age and other individual characteristics.
For men with no family history of prostate cancer and no symptoms, the current guidelines recommend that men who decide to undergo regular testing should be offered PSA testing every two years from age 50 to 69.
For men with a family history of prostate cancer who decide to undergo testing, the guidelines recommend men be offered PSA testing every two years from age 40/45 to 69, with the starting age depending on the strength of their family history.
If you have low risk prostate cancer, Active Surveillance is increasingly being recommended as a management option for your disease, in order to avoid unnecessary and invasive treatments when it is clinically safe to do so. Estimates suggest about 60% of low risk prostate cancers in Australia are managed with Active Surveillance.
So, what is Active Surveillance, and is it a good treatment option for you?
A world-first international prostate cancer quality of life study has been carried out by prostate cancer patients themselves. This is the largest study ever conducted by patients and its findings suggest that the different types of treatment for prostate cancer have differing impacts on quality of life. The study suggests that significant numbers of men struggle with urinary incontinence and sexual problems after treatment and that the impact on their quality of life may be greater than previously thought.
The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) has just released the latest figures on prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in Australia.
The trends over time are different to the trends we see for many other types of cancer, including a decreasing number of diagnoses since 2009, when cases peaked in Australia. In that year, 22,146 cases were diagnosed, compared to 16,741 cases expected to be diagnosed this year. With an ageing and increasing population, we might ordinarily expect to see the number of men diagnosed increase, but this has not been the case.
What if a simple blood test could predict the effectiveness of a treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC)? A recent Australian study suggests this is a possibility. Using a blood test, researchers were able to detect circulating cell free DNA and RNA for altered androgen receptors in the blood of men with mCRPC. Men who had altered androgen receptor DNA or RNA in their blood had a poor response to treatment.
Alarming new research has revealed about 70 per cent of Australians don’t know the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer, prompting Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia to call for greater public investment in targeted community awareness activities.
The findings have been reported in the Not All Prostate Cancer is the Same report, released by the Prostate Cancer Patient Coalition – Asia Pacific (PCPC).
In a recent study, researchers have found that not all high-grade prostate cancers are the same. The research examined Gleason grade group 5 prostate cancers which are associated with aggressive disease and poor outcome and found that some cancers of this type were more aggressive then others based on differing patterns of gene expression. This is important work that may one day help clinicians decide how best to treat different subgroups of Gleason grade group 5 prostate cancers. The advantage of this is that men with less aggressive cancers may be spared the side effects of intensive treatment while those with more aggressive cancers receive intensive and more targeted treatment.
In one giant leap for advanced prostate cancer, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has this week approved two new PARP inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancers which have specific genetic mutations.
Professor Alimonti’s team examined the medical records of 9280 patients (4532 were men) with confirmed COVID-19 infection registered on 1st April 2020. The data were from 68 different hospitals in Veneto, one of the regions hardest hit by the disease in Italy. The information collected about these patients included gender, hospitalisation, admission to intensive care unit, death, tumour diagnosis, prostate cancer diagnosis, and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).
The increasing use of PSMA PET scans to image prostate cancer means that metastatic prostate cancer can be detected and targeted more effectively. For a specific type of metastatic disease, known as oligometastatic prostate cancer, emerging evidence suggests that treating the individual oligometastatic sites of disease by metastasis directed therapy (MDT) could delay both the progression of the cancer and the need for androgen deprivation therapy.
In a ground-breaking discovery for men with aggressive prostate cancer, Australian scientists have found a new way to make prostate cancer cells that have spread to bone more visible, so that the immune system can more easily recognise and kill them.
We are in the middle of global pandemic that has escalated very rapidly. The whole world has had to shift its focus to managing this disease. Medical professionals, scientists, biotechnology companies, pharmaceutical companies, government and non-government health bodies are all working together to fight this coronavirus outbreak.
A ground-breaking new Australian trial funded by PCFA has tested the benefits of PSMA-PET scans used at diagnosis. Results show that these scans can replace the current CT and bone scans used by men with high-risk prostate cancer at their time of diagnosis. This week’s research blog asks why this trial is ground-breaking and how it could change clinical practice.
For men with localised prostate cancer, the decision between different treatment and active surveillance options is a very important one. These men want to know their risks of difficult side effects from these options. New research from the US has created a web-based prediction tool for side effects to help men and their doctors in making this decision.
Diagnosis with prostate cancer leads to a wide range of emotions such as fear, anxiety and helplessness. Many men with prostate cancer turn to online groups for help. Online support groups and online communities are a source of information, shared experiences and empowerment for people affected by cancer. A new Australian study has analysed publicly-available conversations from online support groups to track discussions of emotional distress.
Australian professional and volunteer firefighters do a brave and difficult job. Their recent efforts during the 2019-2020 bushfire season have saved many lives. But there is evidence that firefighters have an increased risk of some cancers. Are our firefighters more likely to get prostate cancer?